California Bearing Ratio test on Soil,

Determine the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test on Soil

Thе California Bеaring Ratio (CBR) tеst is a apprеciably usеd gеotеchnical approach to assеss thе powеr of subgradе soils and basе path matеrials for pavеmеnt layout. The check gives treasured insights into the weight-bearing ability of soil and its capability to help roads and extraordinary infrastructure

California Bearing Ratio test on soil  CBR Values

  • Low CBR (e.g., < 3%)
    • Indicates weak soil that may require stabilization or alternative foundation solutions.
  • Medium CBR (e.g., 3% to 15%)
    • Represents soils of moderate strength suitable for various construction purposes.
  • High CBR (e.g., > 15%)
    • Indicates sturdy and stable soils appropriate for helping heavy loads with out excessive deformation.


California Bеaring Ratio (CBR) takе a look at is a not unusual laboratory chеck usеd to dеtеrminе. Thе еlеctricity and sturdinеss of subgradе and basе routе matеrials for thе layout and construction of bеndy pavеmеnts. Thе tеst mеasurеs thе bеaring capability of a matеrial and it is an vital componеnt in figuring out thе pavеmеnt thicknеss and pеrformancе.


Thе ASTM D1883 sixtееn is thе еqual old tеst mеthod titlеd “Standard Tеst Mеthod for CBR (California Bеaring Ratio) of Laboratory Compactеd Soils.”

AASHTO T193 Standard Mеthod of Tеst for California Bеaring Ratio (CBR) of Soils in Placе

BS 1377 ninе Mеthods of tеst for soils for civil еnginееring functions Part ninе: In situ tеsts California bеaring ratio assеssmеnts

AS 1289.6.4.1 – Methods of checking out soils for engineering functions – Soil power and consolidation checks – California Bearing Ratio Test

IS 2720 (Part 16) – Methods of take a look at for soils – Part sixteen: Laboratory willpower of CBR


The test goals to decide the CBR of a compacted soil specimen the use of the standard test technique. The check can be carried out on various substances, along with cohesive soils, granular soils, and aggregates.


  • To determine the bearing potential of the soil specimen
  • To assess the suitability of the soil to be used as subgrade or base course Material
  • To compare the CBR values of different soil samples


  • CBR machine
  • Mold with a diameter of 6 inches and a peak of 7 inches
  • Penetration piston with a diameter of 2 inches and a weight of 10 pounds
  • Use a dial gauge with a resolution of zero.0001 inches.
  • Soaking tank
  • Weighing scale
  • Oven
  • Sieve


The CBR check includes measuring the resistance of a soil specimen to penetration by means of a standard piston at a popular price of deformation. Conduct the check on a laboratory-compacted specimen with a peak of 6 inches and a diameter of 6.25 inches. Soak the specimen in water for four days to simulate subject situations. Lower a penetration piston into the specimen at a steady charge of zero.05 inches (1.25 mm) consistent with minute. Record the force required to achieve a penetration of zero.1 inch (1.25 mm), and calculate the CBR cost as the ratio of the pressure required to penetrate the soil to that required to penetrate a fashionable cloth (beaten stone) on the same price of penetration.

California bearing ratio check (CBR) is described as the ratio pressure in step with unit place that is required to penetrate a mass of soil with the same old circular piston at a charge of one.25 millimeters per minute to that required for corresponding penetration of fashionable material.


  1. Obtain a consultant soil pattern from the Sight of hobby, either by means of digging a pit or the usage of a soil auger.
  2. Prepare the sample through eliminating any seen particles, natural depend, or rocks large than 3/4 inch.
  3. Determine the water percentages. However, it’s miles essential to decide the moisture content before accomplishing the take a look at. Typically, verify the moisture content material of the soil pattern the use of the ideal method, including oven-drying or a rapid moisture tester.
  4. Determine the dry density of the pattern through weighing it after which measuring its volume the usage of the right method (together with a sand cone or nuclear gauge).
  5. Place the soil pattern in a mildew of 6 inches in diameter with a top of 7 inches, and compact the soil in 3 equal layers the usage of 56 blows of a five.5 lb hammer for each layer.
  6. After compaction, trim the top and bottom surfaces of the sample to level the soil surface.
  7. Measure the height of the compacted soil sample and record it.
  8. Place a penetration plunger of 2.5 inches in diameter on top of the soil sample and center it. Attach the plunger to a loading device able to making use of a load of 10,000 lbs at a rate of 0.05 inches in line with minute.
  9. Start making use of the weight until the plunger has penetrated the soil sample via o.1 inches, then report the weight required.
  10. Continue applying the burden at the identical price till the plunger has penetrated the soil pattern by using 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0 inches, recording the load required at each c program languageperiod.
  11. Calculate the CBR cost for every penetration intensity by dividing the load required to penetrate the soil by using the weight required to penetrate the standard cloth (typically crushed limestone or beaten gravel) and multiplying the end result by a 100.
  12. Plot the CBR values as opposed to the penetration depth to gain the CBR curve.
  13. Determine the CBR cost corresponding to a penetration intensity of 0.1 inches, which is the CBR at the most pressure.
  14. Report the CBR fee at the maximum stress, along side the moisture content and dry density of the pattern.


Calculate the CBR price because the ratio of the pressure required to penetrate the soil to that required to penetrate a widespread material (crushed stone) at the identical price of penetration, expressed as a percentage.

CBR = (Force to penetrate soil / Force to penetrate preferred material) x 100

A typical range of CBR values for different soil types is as follows:

  • Highly compacted gravel or rock: CBR > 80%
  • Sandy or gravelly soils: CBR between 10% and 80%
  • Silty or clayey soils: CBR < 10%


The CBR take a look at is an crucial tool for evaluating the strength and durability of subgrade and base course substances for flexible pavements. The check affords treasured statistics for pavement layout and construction, and may help perceive potential problems that can arise at some point of the lifestyles of the pavement. The CBR values obtained from the check may be used to pick appropriate materials and to determine the thickness of the pavement layers.


Conduct the CBR check on more than a few soil samples to acquire a consultant range of CBR values. Conduct the take a look at according with the ASTM widespread to make sure accuracy and consistency of effects. Analyze the take a look at outcomes. and use CBR values in engineering layout to pick out appropriate materials and designs for roadways and other systems based on the load-bearing capability of the soil.

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